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Lancelot Threlkeld

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Born                20 October 1788

Died                 10 October 1859

Spouse             married 1808, Martha Goss (born 1794, died 7 March 1824)

married 20 October 1824, Sarah Arndell (born 17 January 1796, died 1853)

Children          with Martha: [unnamed] Threlkeld (born and died 1816), Joseph Thomas Threlkeld (born 1817), Martha, Tabitha, Mary Williams (born 1823, died 1887).

with Sarah: Elizabeth Sophia (born 1825), Lancelot Edward Threlkeld born 1827, died 1882), Sarah Ann (born 1830), Thomas Samuel Threlkeld (born 1834, died 1883).

Ordained         8 November 1815

 

The Reverend Lancelot Edward Threlkeld (20 October 1788 – 10 October 1859) was an English evangelical missionary, primarily situated in Australia. Threlkeld was married twice and was survived by sons and daughters from both marriages.[1]

Early Life

Born in England, on 20 October 1788, Threlkeld was son of Samuel Joseph Threlkeld, a brush maker and Mary, his wife.[2] In 1813 Threlkeld commenced training as an evangelical missionary with the London Missionary Society. His missionary career began in 1814 when he was sent on assignment to the Society Islands.[3]

Missionary Life

Evangelist

Threlkeld was ordained as a missionary on 8 November 1815 and sailed for Tahiti, but the illness and subsequent death of his child detained Threlkeld for a year at Rio de Janeiro, where he started a Protestant church.[4] He left for Sydney on 22 January 1817, arrived on 11 May, after a short stay went to the South Sea Islands, and arrived at Eimeo (now Mo’orea, in French Polynesia) in November.

A missionary station was formed at Raiatea and Threlkeld worked there for nearly seven years. His wife died, and being left with four children he returned to Sydney in 1824.[5] Here, Daniel Tyerman and George Bennet, travelling LMS Deputies, appointed Threlkeld as missionary to Lake Macquarie Aboriginals.[6] Situated on land allocated by Governor Brisbane, Threlkeld was instructed to teach Aboriginals agriculture, carpentry and establish a children’s school. The LMS also dictated Threlkeld learn the local language as a precursor to successful Christian conversions.[7]

Lake Macquarie Mission Map 1828

Figure 3: The shaded red area is the allocated land for the ‘Station of the Mission to the Aborigines, belonging to the London Missionary Society.’[8]

By September 1826 Threlkeld and family were living onsite at Bahtahbah mission, within a six-roomed house.[9] Alongside the Threlkeld family were three British overseers, one assigned convict, one adult and one child domestic.[10] Threlkeld, who was paying Aboriginal workers on site with fishing hooks, food and clothing, wrote in 1825 ‘[i]t is my intention to act here upon the same plan we found so successful at Raiatea namely, give nothing to any individual but in return for some labour for common good!’.[11]  Threlkeld wrote of the early period of the mission’s settlement Aboriginals frequenting the mission sought land allocations as ‘two natives have spoken to me already to allow them a portion of land for agriculture.’[12]

Residing onsite at Bahtahbah mission enabled Threlkeld to work closely and frequently with Awabakal Elder, Biraban.[13] One significant task they undertook together was the reduction of the Awabakal language into written form. Threlkeld wrote of this period as one being filled with mornings in which he worked with Biraban, ‘who speaks very good English, in writing the language…Our conversations vary, and cruise from enquiries into their customs and habits. Easy sentences, passages from scripture, and information on Christian subjects are attempted.’[14] A consequence of such interactions Threlkeld published Specimens of a Dialect of the Aborigines of New South Wales.[15]

Despite this sociolinguistic success in 1827 the lack of religious conversions led to the LMS objecting to Threlkeld’s expenses, this assertion also influenced Threlkeld’s conflict with colonial Magistrate and Reverend Samuel Marsden and Presbyterian minister, John Dunmore Lang.[16] The LMS consequently appointed Marsden financial overseer, and thus manager, of Bahtahbah mission.[17] In 1828 the LMS, dissatisfied with Threkeld’s evangelical work, directed Threlkeld to abandon Bahtahbah mission, and offered to pay for his return to London.[18] Declining the LMS invitation Threlkeld was subsequently appointed by Governor Darling, on behalf of the Colonial Government, to continue his “Christianisation and civilisation” work with a salary of £150 a year and four convict servants, with rations.[19] This mission was allocated between 1000-1280 acres on the northern side of Lake Macquarie, and was named as Derabambah, Punte and Puneir by Aboriginal populations and Ebenezer (mission) by the European population. Initially, a mission house with 12 rooms was built from weatherboard and plaster.[20] Later, the site also hosted a storehouse, a barn, a hut (which was a living quarters for Australian-European men living on site), orchards and fenced cattle spaces.[21] However, with less financial support and goods to distribute Threlkeld’s ability to persuade Awabakal people to remain on site dramatically decreased.[22] The official closure of the Ebenezer Mission occurred on 31 December 1841, with the precarious financial position of Threlkeld leading to the establishment of grazing stock and mining of coal seams on the property.[23] In 1842 the British Secretary of State for the Colonies designated the evangelical missions, such as Threlkeld’s, as failures.[24] However, the LMS having received a letter from Quakers James Backhouse and George Washington Walker detailing the particular nature of missionary work in the Australian colonies, acknowledged Threlkeld’s ‘vigilance, activity and devotedness to the welfare of the Aboriginal race.’[25]

Subsequently, Threlkeld became pastor of the Congregational church at Watsons Bay, Sydney. He was appointed minister of the Mariners’ church (Sydney) in 1845 for the duration of his lifetime.

Interpreter

The Awabakal Scriptures

Threlkeld worked in association with Biraban to translate, conceptualise and write various Christian religious texts.[26] Threlkeld publish a book describing the Awabakal language An Australian Grammar, comprehending the Principles and Natural Rules of the Language, as spoken by the Aborigines, in the vicinity of Hunter’s river, Lake Macquarie, New South Wales.[27] This was followed in 1836 by An Australian Spelling Book in the Language spoken by the Aborigines. Threlkeld described the translation process with Biraban as follows: ‘[t]hrice I wrote it [the Gospel of Luke], and he and I went through it sentence by sentence as we proceeded. McGill spoke the English language fluently.’[28] The objective of Threlkeld was to create a linguistic record ‘before the speakers themselves become totally extinct’, as a means of ‘scientific inquiry’ and ‘ethnographical pursuits.’[29] Threlkeld began translating the New Testament into the Hunter’s River Aboriginal language, yet with the realisation in 1842 his mission was achieving little success Threlkeld ceased this linguistic work.[30] Threlkeld later resumed working on publications of the Awabakal language, publishing A Key to the Structure of the Aboriginal Language (1850) and was working on a translation of the four Gospels at the time of his sudden death on October 10, 1859.[31]

The Supreme Court

Threlkeld’s linguistic work was highly valued in the Colonial Courts during the 1830s as ‘Aborigines were not permitted to give evidence in court, not being allow to swear an oath on the bible without adhering to Christianity’.[32] Threlkeld also provided ethnographic information which was used to inform Judges’ conclusions in numerous cases.[33]

Protector

Threlkeld used the mission’s Annual Reports and formal inquiries, such as Committee on the Aborigines Question, as moments to attempt to ameliorate Aboriginal dispossession and violent subjection.[34] In 1840 Threlkeld, writing to Colonial Secretary, highlighted the paradoxical nature of the colonial courts:

I am now perfectly at a loss to describe to them [Aboriginals] their position. Christian laws will hang the aborigines from violence done to Christians, but Christian laws will not protect them from the aggressions of nominal Christians, because aborigines must give evidence only upon oath.[35]

After the closure of Ebenezer mission, Threlkeld served on Aboriginal welfare boards, attended police courts in support of Aboriginal defendants, and became a member of the Ethnological Society, London .[36] In 1853 Threlkeld argued the low status attributed to Aboriginals was a means of ‘convenient assumption’ as such characterisation at the level of ‘species of wild beasts, [meant] there could be no guilt attributed to those [settlers] who shot them off or poisoned them,’.[37]

Contemporary relevance

From the late 1970s Threlkeld’s accounts were utilised in the regions of the Hunter Valley and Watagan Mountains in Land Rights claims and the determination of Aboriginal sites of significance.[38]

In 1986 Threlkeld’s work became the basis for an Awabakal language revitalisation project.[39]

Representations within Australia’s History Wars

Threlkeld’s Annual Reports, which contained information concerning Aboriginal massacres, such as the Waterloo Creek massacre are crucial points of contention within Australia’s History Wars. Historian Keith Windschuttle argues Threlkeld inflated numbers of the Aboriginal dead in order to gain support for his mission proposals.[40] Alternatively, John Harris, asserts Threlkeld is a source which supplements the few Aboriginal eyewitness accounts of this historic period.[41] Macintyre explains the intersection of these viewpoints within Australia’s media and the National Museum of Australia has constituted Threlkeld’s era as ‘the most fiercely contested aspect of the national story.’[42]

Publications

  • Aboriginal Mission, New South Wales (1825)
  • Specimens of a Dialect, of the Aborigines of New South Wales; being the First Attempt to Form their Speech into a Written Language (1827)
  • A Statement chiefly relating to The Formation and Abandonment of a Mission to the Aborigines (1928)
  • An Australian Grammar, Comprehending the Principles and Natural Rules of the Language, as Spoken by the Aborigines, in the Vicinity of Hunter’s River, Lake Macquarie, &c. New South Wales (1834)
  • Morning Prayers in the Awabakal Dialect (1835)
  • An Australian Spelling Book, in the Language as Spoken by the Aborigines, in the Vicinity of Hunter’s River, Lake Macquarie, New South Wales (1836)
  • A Key to the Structure of the Aboriginal Language (1850)

Further Reading

M. Carey, ‘Lancelot Threlkeld, Biraban, and the Colonial Bible in Australia’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol. 52, no. 02, 2002, pp. 447-478.

H.M. Carey ‘Lancelot Threlkeld and missionary linguistics in Australia to 1850’, Missionary Linguistics/Lingüística Misionera: Selected Papers from the First International Conference on Missionary Linguistics, Oslo 13-16 March 2003, ed. by Otto Zwartjes and Even Hovdhaugn, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2004, pp.253-275.

Austin, et al., Land of Awabakal, Yarnteen Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders Corporation, New South Wales, 1995.

Lake Macquarie & District Historical society, Toronto Lake Macquarie, N.S.W: The Pictorial Story, Westlake Printers, Boolaroo, 1979.

Sutton, ‘Unusual Couples: Relationships and Research on the Knowledge Frontier’, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies [website], 29 May 2002, < https://aiatsis.gov.au/sites/default/files/docs/presentations/2002-wentworth-sutton-unusual-couples-relationships-research.pdf>, retrieved 10 September 2017.

External Links

Australian Dictionary Biography

State Library of New South Wales

Trove National Library of Australia

References

 

 

[1] N. Gunson, ‘Notes’[c], p.176; Image 1: Reverend Lancelot Edward Threlkeld (c.1850).

[2]   J. Harris, One Blood: 200 Years of Aboriginal Encounter with Christianity: A Story of Hope, Albatross Books, New South Wales, 1990, p.53.

[3] C. Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition, Vol. 2, Philadelphia, Lea and Blanchard, 1845, p.250; J. Harris, pp.53-5; K. Clouten, Reid’s Mistake: The Story of Lake Macquarie from its Discovery until 1890,Lake Macquarie Shire Council, New South Wales, 1967, p.22; Wikipedia, ‘Society Islands’, Wikipedia [website], https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Society_Islands, retrieved 29 September 2017.

[4] J. Fraser, ‘Introduction’, in J. Fraser ed., An Australian Language as spoken by the Awabakal the people of Awaba or Lake Macquarie (Near Newcastle, New South Wales) Being an Account of Their Language, Traditions and Customs, Charles Potter, Sydney, 1892, p.xv; J. Harris, p.55; K. Clouten, p.22; N. Gunson, ‘Threlkeld, Lancelot Edward (1788–1859)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, <http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/threlkeld-lancelot-edward-2734/text3859&gt;, retrieved 8 September 2017.

[5] A. Keary, ‘Christianity, colonialism, and cross-cultural translation: Lancelot Threlkeld, Biraban, and the Awabakal,’ Aboriginal History, 2003, p.120; J. Harris, p.55; State Library of New South Wales, Biraban and the Reverend Threlkeld’, State Library of New South Wales [website], Archive, 4 September 2008, <http://www2.sl.nsw.gov.au/archive/discover_collections/history_nation/indigenous/vocabularies/missionary/biraban.html> retrieved 21 September 2017.

[6] Wikipedia, ‘Daniel Tyerman’, Wikipedia [website], <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Tyerman>, retrieved 29 September 2017; Wikipedia, ‘George Bennet (missionary)’, Wikipedia [website], <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Bennet_(missionary)>, retrieved 29 September 2017; Wikipedia, ‘Lake Macquarie’, Wikipedia [website], <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_of_Lake_Macquarie>, retrieved 29 September 2017.

[7] A. Keary, pp.120-1; J. Harris, p.55; J. Turner, & G. Blyton, The Aboriginals of Lake Macquarie: A brief history Lake Macquarie City Council, New South Wales, 1995, p.31; K. Clouten, pp.22-23; L.E. Threlkeld, ‘Selected Correspondence’, in N. Gunson ed., Australian Reminiscences & Papers of L.E. Threlkeld Missionary to the Aborigines 1824-1859 Volume II, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra, p.181; L.E. Threlkeld, ‘The Gospel by St. Luke Translated into the Language of the Awabakal by L.E. Threlkeld’, in J. Fraser ed., An Australian Language as spoken by the Awabakal the people of Awaba or Lake Macquarie (Near Newcastle, New South Wales) Being an Account of Their Language, Traditions and Customs, Charles Potter, Sydney, 1892, p.125; P. van Toorn, Writing Never Arrives Naked: Early Aboriginal Cultures of writing in Australia, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra, 2006, p.40; Wikipedia, ‘Thomas Brisbane’, Wikipedia [website], <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Brisbane#Governor>, retrieved 29 September 2017.

[8] J. Cross, & H. Dangar, ‘Map of the River Hunter, and its branches [cartographic material]: shewing the Lands reserved thereon for Church purposes, the Locations made to Settlers, and the Settlement and part of the Lands of the Australian Agricultural Company at Port Stephens together with the Station of the Mission to the Aborigines belonging to the London Missionary Society on Lake Macquarie, New South Wales’, Trove  [website], 1828, http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-230579854, retrieved 10 September 2017.

[9] A. Keary, p.122; K. Clouten, p.25.

[10] C. Wilkes, p.253; J. Harris, p.55; K. Clouten, p.25.

[11] L.E. Threlkeld, ‘Selected Correspondence’, p.178; J. Turner, & G. Blyton, p.32.

[12] L.E. Threlkeld, ‘Selected Correspondence’, p.183.

[13] L.E, Threlkeld, ‘Memoranda of Events at Lake Macquarie’, in N. Gunson ed., Australian Reminiscences & Papers of L.E. Threlkeld Missionary to the Aborigines 1824-1859 Volume I, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra, p.98;

[14] L.E. Threlkeld, ‘Memoranda of Events at Lake Macquarie’, p.98; Wikipedia, ‘Biraban’, Wikipedia [website], <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biraban>, retrieved 29 September 2017.

[15] L.E. Threlkeld, ‘The Gospel by St. Luke Translated into the Language of the Awabakal by L.E. Threlkeld’, p.125.

[16] C., Wilkes, p.252; J. Harris, pp.55-5-; K. Clouten, p.26; P. van Toorn, pp.40-41; Wikipedia, ‘John Dunmore Lang, Wikipedia [website], <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Dunmore_Lang>, retrieved 29 September 2017; Wikipedia, ‘Samuel Marsden’, Wikipedia [website], <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Marsden>, retrieved 29 September 2017.

[17] K. Clouten, p.26.

[18] C. Wilkes, p.251; J. Harris, p.56; K. Clouten, pp.26-29; J. Turner, & G. Blyton, p.32.

[19] A. Keary, p.126; J. Harris, p.56; C. Wilkes, p.251; K. Clouten, p.28; N. Gunson, ‘Threlkeld, Lancelot Edward (1788–1859)’, retrieved 8 September 2017; Wikipedia, ‘Ralph Darling’, Wikipedia [website], < https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Darling&gt;, retrieved 29 September 2017.

[20] K. Clouten, pp.28-29; Lake Macquarie & District Historical society, Toronto Lake Macquarie, N.S.W: The Pictorial Story, Westlake Printers, Boolaroo, 1979, p.7.

[21] C. Wilkes, p.250; K. Clouten, p.30.

[22] A. Keary, p.126.

[23] N. Gunson, ‘Threlkeld, Lancelot Edward (1788–1859)’, retrieved 8 September 2017.

[24] J. Harris, p.23; Wikipedia, ‘Secretary of State for the Colonies’, Wikipedia [website], <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secretary_of_State_for_the_Colonies#Secretaries_of_State_for_the_Colonies.2C_1854.E2.80.931903>, retrieved 29 September 2017.

[25] J. Harris, p.59; K. Clouten, p.32; J. Turner, & G. Blyton, p.40; Wikipedia, ‘James Backhouse’, Wikipedia [website], <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Backhouse>, retrieved 30 September 2017; Wikipedia, ‘George Washington Walker’, Wikipedia [website], <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington_Walker>, retrieved 30 September 2017.

[26] The University of Newcastle, ‘Backhouse, James Chapters 33-35 From A Narrative of a Visit to the Australian Colonies, The University of Newcastle [website], 2017, Cultural Collections<Backhouse, James. Chapters 33-35 from A Narrative of a Visit to the Australian Colonies. London : Hamilton, Adams, 1843. pp.368 – 414.  https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/pdf/backhouse.pdf > retrieved 14 September 2017, pp.381-2.

[27] A. Keary, p.125; J. Harris, p.56; The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 – 1842)  Sat 12 Mar 1831  Page 3  Original Correspondence. ; P. Sutton, ‘Unusual Couples: Relationships and Research on the Knowledge Frontier’, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies [website], 29 May 2002, < https://aiatsis.gov.au/sites/default/files/docs/presentations/2002-wentworth-sutton-unusual-couples-relationships-research.pdf>, retrieved 10 September 2017. p.2. ‘Oiginal Correspondence, Civilisation of the Blacks

[28] J. Harris, p.57.

[29] L.E. Threlkeld, ‘A Key to the Structure of the Aboriginal Language’, in J. Fraser ed., An Australian Language as spoken by the Awabakal the people of Awaba or Lake Macquarie (Near Newcastle, New South Wales) Being an Account of Their Language, Traditions and Customs, Charles Potter, Sydney, 1892, p.120.

[30] J. Fraser, ‘Introduction’, pp.xi-lxiv; K. Clouten, p.32.

[31] Wikipedia, ‘Gospel’, Wikipedia [website], <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gospel>, retrieved 30 September 2017.

[32] J. Harris, p.57; Wikipedia, ‘Christianity’, Wikipedia [website], < https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christianity&gt;, retrieved 30 September 2017; Macquarie University, ‘R. v. Boatman or jackass and bulleye [1832] NSWSupC 4’, Macquarie Law School [website], 12 August 2011, Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, < http://www.law.mq.edu.au/research/colonial_case_law/nsw/cases/case_index/1832/r_v_boatman_or_jackass_and_bulleye/>, retrieved 25 September 2017; Macquarie University, ‘R. v. Jackey [1834] NSWSupC 94’, Macquarie Law School [website], 16 August 2011, Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, < http://www.law.mq.edu.au/research/colonial_case_law/nsw/cases/case_index/1834/r_v_jackey/>, retrieved 25 September 2017.

[33] A. Johnston, ‘A Blister on the Imperial Antipodes: Lancelot Edward Threlkeld in Polynesia and Australia’, in D. Lambert & A. Lester ed., Colonial Lives across the British Empire: Imperial Careering in the Long Nineteenth Century, Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, 2006, pp.74-75; A. Johnston, The Paper War, UWA Publishing, Western Australia, 2011, p.183; J. Turner, & G. Blyton, p.38; Macquarie University, ‘R. v. Boatman or jackass and bulleye [1832] NSWSupC 4’, Macquarie Law School [website], 12 August 2011, Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, <http://www.law.mq.edu.au/research/colonial_case_law/nsw/cases/case_index/1832/r_v_boatman_or_jackass_and_bulleye/>, retrieved 25 September 2017; Macquarie University, ‘R. v. Kilmeiste (No.1) [1838] NSWSupC 105’, Macquarie Law School [website], 22 June 2012, Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, < http://www.law.mq.edu.au/research/colonial_case_law/nsw/cases/case_index/1838/r_v_kilmeister1/>, retrieved 25 September 2017;  Macquarie University, ‘R. v. Long Jack [1838] NSWSupC 44’, Macquarie Law School [website], 19 September 2011, Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, < http://www.law.mq.edu.au/research/colonial_case_law/nsw/cases/case_index/1838/r_v_long_jack/>, retrieved 25 September 2017; Macquarie University, ‘R. v. Long Dick [1835] NSWSupC 43’, Macquarie Law School [website], 16 August 2011, Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, < http://www.law.mq.edu.au/research/colonial_case_law/nsw/cases/case_index/1835/r_v_long_dick/>, retrieved 25 September 2017; Macquarie University, ‘R. v. Mickey and Muscle [1835] NSWSupC 5’, Macquarie Law School [website], 16 August 2011, Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, < http://www.law.mq.edu.au/research/colonial_case_law/nsw/cases/case_index/1835/r_v_mickey_and_muscle/>, retrieved 25 September 2017; Macquarie University, ‘R. v. Murrell and Bummaree (1836) 1 Legge 72;  [1836] NSWSupC 35’, Macquarie Law School [website], 12 August 2011, Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, < http://www.law.mq.edu.au/research/colonial_case_law/nsw/cases/case_index/1836/r_v_murrell_and_bummaree/>, retrieved 25 September 2017; Macquarie University, ‘R. v. Tommy [1827] NSWSupC 70’, Macquarie Law School [website], 22 August 2011, Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, <http://www.law.mq.edu.au/research/colonial_case_law/nsw/cases/case_index/1827/r_v_tommy/ >, retrieved 25 September 2017.

[34] A, Johnston, The Paper War, p.215; A. Keary, pp.122-4; A. Johnston, ‘A Blister on the Imperial Antipodes: Lancelot Edward Threlkeld in Polynesia and Australia’, p.75; K. Windschuttle, ‘The Myths of Frontier Massacres in Australian History: Part III: Massacre Stories and the Policy on Separatism’, Quandrant, December, 2000, p.9; L.E. Threlkeld, ‘Memoranda of Events at Lake Macquarie’, pp.83-176; New South Wales Legislative Council, ‘Aborigines Question: report from the Committee on the Aborigines Question, with the minutes of evidence’, New South Wales Legislative Council, J. Spilsbury, Sydney, 1838.

[35] L.E. Threlkeld, ‘Memoranda of Events at Lake Macquarie’, p.166.

[36] N. Gunson, ‘Threlkeld, Lancelot Edward (1788–1859)’, retrieved 8 September 2017; Wikipedia, ‘Ethnological Society of London’, Wikipedia [website], https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnological_Society_of_London, retrieved 30 September 2017.

[37] J. Harris, p.27.

[38] J. Maynard, ‘Awabakal voices: The life and work of Percy Haslam, John Maynard’, Aboriginal History, Vol 37, 2013, <http://www.jstor.org/stable/24046959>, retrieved September 11 2017, p.86; K. Austin, et al., Land of Awabakal, Yarnteen Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders Corporation, New South Wales, 1995, p.24; Wikipedia, ‘Land Rights’, Wikipedia [website], <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aboriginal_land_rights_in_Australia&gt;, retrieved 4 October 2017.

[39] J. Maynard, p.88.

[40] A. Johnston, ‘A Blister on the Imperial Antipodes: Lancelot Edward Threlkeld in Polynesia and Australia’, p.81; K. Windschuttle, p.9.

[41] A, Keary, p.117; J. Harris, ‘Aboriginal Massacres DID happen’, Eternity [website],< https://www.eternitynews.com.au/opinion/aboriginal-massacres-did-happen/&gt; , retrieved 27 August 2017.

[42] S. Macintyre, A Concise History of Australia’, 3rd edn, Cambridge University Press, Port Melbourne, 2009, p.61; J. Connor, The Australian Frontier Wars: 1788-1838, UNSW Press, Sydney, 2002, pp.63-67; Wikipedia, ‘National Museum of Australia’, Wikipedia [website], <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Museum_of_Australia>, retrieved 30 September 2017.

[1] Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, ‘Sensitivity’, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies [website], 2017, Sensitivity, <https://aiatsis.gov.au/sensitivity>, retrieved 8 September 2017.